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Because parents can influence the attitude and alcohol use of their child by applying such measures, these should be the starting points for interventions for parents of both ordinaries and ordinary sobers. Besides, it is important to educate the parents of both the ordinaries and the ordinary sobers about the short-term and long-term alcohol-related harm of adolescent alcohol drinking, i.

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Of the 55 invited adolescents, 18 did not participate due to withdrawal by the adolescents themselves four in advance, 12 not showing on the day of the focus group or because their parents did not want them to participate, which was the case for two adolescents. Focus groups took place at school during school time.

Of the 18 non-participants, 13 were ordinaries and five were ordinary sobers. We did not ask for reasons for withdrawal.

The researchers composed the focus groups with a good mix of age and gender. Therefore, boys and girls, of a younger and older age, participated together in a focus group. It might be possible that the composition of the focus groups has hindered participants to be totally honest about their opinion. However, we did not notice so; all participants participated actively in the focus groups. Besides, the researchers paid attention that all participants could and did express their own opinion.

The segmentation based on alcohol attitudes might have helped in this; the participants of one focus group shared the same attitudes towards alcohol. Moreover, it might be possible that results differ per school and, thus, per educational level and were influenced by an overrepresentation of girls in the focus groups with the ordinary sobers.

However, because the segments were based on attitudes towards alcohol, and not on socio-demographic variables, this seems less relevant. Finally, it might be possible that group dynamics participants know each other or even might be friends influenced the results. During the focus groups, some participants seemed to know each other, however, researchers did not observe the participants to be friends.

This type of qualitative research provides deeper insight into the attitudes of ordinaries and ordinary sobers towards alcohol, and the role of their parents and peers in the Netherlands. In order to explore cross-cultural applications of this study, more research is needed. Qualitative insight into the attitudes and use of alcohol of the ordinaries and ordinary sobers, and the role of their parents and peers has revealed new differences between these two segments.

Most of the ordinaries already drink alcohol. Ordinaries experience peer pressure and are inclined to drink alcohol when peers are drinking. Most ordinary sobers do not drink alcohol nor do they feel the need to drink. Ordinary sobers respected parental rules about not drinking alcohol until age These differences led to different starting points for interventions. For intervention development, it is advised that an intervention is aimed at adolescents, as well as at their parents and peers.

A starting point for an intervention for ordinary sobers is prompting them to confirm that they do not feel the need to drink.

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Starting points for an intervention for parents are monitoring the use of alcohol of their child, restricting the availability of alcohol at home, and setting clear rules about alcohol use. Health Policy for Children and Adolescents, No. Substance use Among Students in 36 European Countries. J Youth Adolesc. Addict Behav. Mares SHW, van der Vorst H, Engels R, Lichtwarck-Aschoff A: Parental alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol-specific attitudes, alcohol-specific communication, and adolescent excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems: an indirect path model.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs. J Marriage Fam. J Adolesc. J Drug Educ. Alcohol and Public Policy Group: Alcohol: no ordinary commodity-a summary of the second edition.

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Am J Health Behav. Slater MD: Theory and method in health audience segmentation. J Health Commun. Alcohol Clin Exp Res.

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Health Educ Res. BMC Public Health. Strunin L: Assessing alcohol consumption: developments from qualitative research methods. Soc Sci Med. Coll Antropol. Addiction Res Theor. A review of drinking motives. Clin Psychol Rev. Ajzen I: From intentions to actions: a theory of planned behavior. Action Control: From Cognition to Behavior.

Edited by: Kuhl J, Beckmann J. Ajzen I: The theory of planned behavior. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process. Drug Alcohol Depend. Oei TPS, Morawska A: A cognitive model of binge drinking: the influence of alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy. J Fam Commun. Gilligan C, Kypri K: Parent attitudes, family dynamics and adolescent drinking: qualitative study of the Australian parenting guidelines for adolescent alcohol use.

Download references. The authors thank Marijn den Uijl for being the assistant moderator during the focus groups and for transcribing all focus groups verbatim. Correspondence to Meriam M Janssen.


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MJ was responsible for data collection and reporting of the study results. All authors participated in the analysis and interpretation of the findings, reviewed the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Reprints and Permissions. Search all BMC articles Search. Abstract Background An earlier study using social marketing and audience segmentation distinguished five segments of Dutch adolescents aged 12—18 years based on their attitudes towards alcohol.

Methods This qualitative study was conducted in the province of North-Brabant, the Netherlands. Results The ordinaries thought that drinking alcohol was fun and relaxing. Conclusions Qualitative insight into the attitudes towards alcohol and the role played by parents and peers, revealed differences between ordinaries and ordinary sobers.

Background Alcohol use among European adolescents is widespread. Methods For this qualitative study, focus groups were held among students of three Dutch high schools. Focus groups Six focus groups were conducted in February and March , one focus group with ordinaries and one with ordinary sobers per school.

Analysis All focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Table 1 Overview of analysed Atlas Ti family names and codes with operationalisation belonging to these family names Full size table. Table 2 Socio-demographic description of focus group participants Full size table. Discussion This study showed new insights into the differences in alcohol-attitudes and alcohol drinking behaviour between the ordinaries and ordinary sobers.

Study limitations Of the 55 invited adolescents, 18 did not participate due to withdrawal by the adolescents themselves four in advance, 12 not showing on the day of the focus group or because their parents did not want them to participate, which was the case for two adolescents. Conclusions Qualitative insight into the attitudes and use of alcohol of the ordinaries and ordinary sobers, and the role of their parents and peers has revealed new differences between these two segments.

References 1. Article PubMed Google Scholar 5. Article PubMed Google Scholar 6. Article PubMed Google Scholar 7. Article PubMed Google Scholar 8. Article Google Scholar 9. Article PubMed Google Scholar Article Google Scholar PubMed Google Scholar Neale J; Stevenson C, , 'Homeless drug users and information technology: A qualitative study with potential implications for recovery from drug dependence', Substance Use and Misuse , vol.

Neale J; Stevenson C, , 'Positive and negative features of a computer assisted drug treatment program delivered by mentors to homeless drug users living in hostels', Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment , vol. Neale J; Stevenson C, , 'The use of computer-assisted therapy by homeless drug users living in hostels: An explorative qualitative study', Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy , vol. Neale J; Stevenson C, , 'A qualitative exploration of the spatial needs of homeless drug users living in hostels and night shelters', Social Policy and Society , vol.

Neale J; Stevenson C, , 'Routine exposure to blood within hostel environments might help to explain elevated levels of hepatitis C amongst homeless drug users: Insights from a qualitative study', International Journal of Drug Policy , vol. Responsibility Matthew R. Online Available online. Green Library. P42 Unknown. More options. Find it at other libraries via WorldCat Limited preview. Bibliography Includes bibliographical references pages and index. In Containing Addiction, Matthew R. Pembleton argues that its origins instead lie in the years following World War II, when the Federal Bureau of Narcotics - the country's first drug control agency, established in - began to depict drug control as a paramilitary conflict and sent agents abroad to disrupt the flow of drugs to American shores.

Yet World War II presented new opportunities to implement drug control on a global scale. Skeptical of public health efforts to address demand, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics believed that reducing the global supply of drugs was the only way to contain the spread of addiction.